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How to... Sieve Trays

How to design and optimize Sieve Trays

Sieve trays have been used for about a hundred years and are therefore one of the best studied tray type. They can be easily adapted to different design scenarios (flow rates) using different perforations, they do not require any special tool in production and thus are inexpensive to manu­facture.

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How to... Bubble Cap Trays

How to design and optimize Bubble Cap Trays

Bubble Cap trays have been used for about 80 years in technical applications and are a very well studied tray type. Nowadays, they are mainly used for handling low liquid loads, as for this field of application there are only few alterna­tives!

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How to... Float Valve Trays

How to design and optimize Float Valve Trays

Float Valve Trays (also called movable valve trays or ballast trays) are the most flexible tray type among the standard trays. They have been used for about 80 years in technical appli­cations, they are well studied and they are still the mainly used tray type in towers.

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How to... Fixed Valve Trays

How to design and optimize Fixed Valve Trays

Fixed Valve trays were first published and paten­ted by Nutter in 1967. After some improve­ments in scale and development of NC-machinery, they gained technical relevance in the 1990s. Therefore they are the most recent, technical re­levant development in contact elements of trays.

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How to... Downcomers

All about Downcomers and Weirs

To understand all the complexity of trays, it is necessary to get an overview of the various shapes and layouts of downcomers. 

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How to... Random Packings

How to design and calculate Random Packings

Random Packings (“Rings”) are universal all-rounders: they are not expensive, have good separation
performance, low pressure drop, adapt to the column diameter and are available in many sizes, types
and materials. They have been in technical use for more than 100 years.

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How to... Chimney Trays

How to design Chimney Trays

Chimney Trays (also called „Collector Trays“ or „Draw-Offs“) are not used for mass transfer – but they
are important and sometimes also critical components for the operation of columns. This article
describes the functions, designs and leakage classes of these trays.

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How to... Tunnel Trays

How to design Tunnel Trays

Tunnel trays are more than only „trays with rectangular bubble caps“.  There are two variants of orientation of the tunnels on the active area with specific features. Even though there is only few and rather old public literature of Tunnel trays, this tray type is used in many applications.

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How to... Structured Packings

How to design Structured Packings

Due to their construction, structured packings can provide a very large surface area for mass transfer
while maintaining a low pressure drop. After the introduction of sheet metal packings in the 1980s
and the initial euphoria to displace all other column internals, nowadays they have found their firm
place for several applications.

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